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Apple Polyphenols and Weight Loss  
  • Japanese researchers reported in October 2004 that apple polyphenol extract reduced organ fat by 27% and increased muscle strength by 16% in three weeks in laboratory animals.

  • Trials are reportedly now underway at the Nippon Sport Science University in Japan to confirm these effects in humans. For the latest news and medical studies on apple polyphenols, sign up for the free AP Science bulletins.

  • In a Brazilian study of overweight women, those eating apples and pears showed significant weight loss.

  • New research published in the medical journal Diabetes showed that apple polyphenol extract significantly decreased body fat in mice, even with increased food intake.

Apple polyphenols shown to reduce organ fat, Life Extension News 2004
Weight loss associated with a daily intake of three apples or three pears among overweight women, Nutrition. 2003
Phloridzin improves hyperglycemia but not hepatic insulin resistance in a transgenic mouse model of type 2 diabetes, Diabetes. 2004


Nutrition. 2003 Mar;19(3):253-6.
Weight loss associated with a daily intake of three apples or three pears among overweight women.

Conceicao de Oliveira M, Sichieri R, Sanchez Moura A.

Instituto de Medicina Social, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of fruit intake on body weight change. METHODS: Hypercholesterolemic, overweight (body mass index > 25 kg/m2), and non-smoking women, 30 to 50 y of age, were randomized to receive, free of charge, one of three dietary supplements: apples, pears, or oat cookies. Women were instructed to eat one supplement three times a day in a total of six meals a day. Participants (411 women) were recruited at a primary care center of the State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fifty-one women had fasting blood cholesterol levels greater than 6.2 mM/L (240 mg/dL) and 49 were randomized. Subjects were instructed by a dietitian to eat a diet (55% of energy from carbohydrate, 15% from protein, and 30% from fat) to encourage weight reduction at the rate of 1 kg/mo. RESULTS: After 12 wk of follow-up, the fruit group lost 1.22 kg (95% confidence interval = 0.44-1.85), whereas the oat group had a non-significant weight loss of 0.88 kg (0.37-2.13). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.004). To explore further the body weight loss associated with fruit intake, we measured the ratio of glucose to insulin. A significantly greater decrease of blood glucose was observed among those who had eaten fruits compared with those who had eaten oat cookies, but the glucose:insulin ratio was not statistically different from baseline to follow-up. Adherence to the diet was high, as indicated by changes in serum triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and reported fruit intake. Fruit intake in the oat group throughout treatment was minimal. CONCLUSIONS: Intake of fruits may contribute to weight loss.

Publication Types:
  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 12620529 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Diabetes. 2004 Nov;53(11):2901-9.

Phloridzin improves hyperglycemia but not hepatic insulin resistance in a transgenic mouse model of type 2 diabetes.

Zhao H, Yakar S, Gavrilova O, Sun H, Zhang Y,
Kim H, Setser J, Jou W, LeRoith D.

Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1758, USA.

The chronic hyperglycemia that occurs in type 2 diabetes may cause deterioration of beta-cell function and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. Mice that express a dominant-negative IGF-1 receptor, specifically in skeletal muscle (MKR mice), exhibit severe insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hyper-glycemia. To determine the role of hyperglycemia in the worsening of the diabetes state in these animals, MKR mice were treated with phloridzin (PHZ), which inhibits intestinal glucose uptake and renal glucose reabsorption. Blood glucose levels were decreased and urine glucose levels were increased in response to PHZ treatment in MKR mice. PHZ treatment also increased food intake in MKR mice; however, the fat mass was decreased and lean body mass did not change. Serum insulin, fatty acid, and triglyceride levels were not affected by PHZ treatment in MKR mice. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis demonstrated that glucose uptake in white adipose tissue was significantly increased in response to PHZ treatment. Despite the reduction in blood glucose following PHZ treatment, there was no improvement in insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose uptake in MKR mice and neither was there suppression of endogenous glucose production by insulin. These results suggest that glucotoxicity plays little or no role in the worsening of insulin resistance that occurs in the MKR mouse model of type 2 diabetes.


"Phloridzin (PHZ) is an antidiabetic agent that is found primarily in apple peels.

"PHZ treatment decreases fat mass in MKR mice. Compared with WT controls, vehicle-treated MKR mice had slightly lower average body weights. Whole-body fat mass in MKR mice was significantly reduced in response to PHZ treatment.

"The weight of white adipose tissue in MKR mice was decreased in response to PHZ treatment (Fig. 2D-E). When expressed as a percentage of body weight, gonadal and inguinal fat pad weights decreased by 27 and 30%, respectively

PMID: 15504971 [PubMed - in process]

(more research)

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