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Apple Polyphenols- Medical Research  
  • Many new studies on apple polyphenols are now available online. Please check the following sections for a review of the latest posted research: allergies, skin cancer, heart disease, and cholesterol.

  • Research into the health benefits of apple polyphenol extracts has accelerated in recent months, and an impressive body of studies is now available.

  • Apple polyphenol extracts are a potent scavenger of the hydroxyl radical, the most damaging type of free radicals in your body.

  • One of the most exciting findings on apple polyphenol extracts is their ability to dramatically increase the activity of SOD and GP, two vital intracellular free radical scavengers.

  • As new research is announced, you can be notified through the AP Science news bulletin. Just sign up with your name and email address at right.

Why are Free Radicals Important?
As you review all of the medical studies on apple polyphenols (links at left, and below) you will find a common thread: their potent antioxidant activity. The underlying mechanism of human diseases is increasingly understood to be involved with free radical damage at the cellular level.

Since the 1950's, when Denham Harman, M.D. first proposed the free radical theory of aging and disease, an overwhelming amount of scientific research has investigated free radical damage as a factor in disease. A current search of PubMed (the public database of the National Library of Medicine) for "free radicals and disease" returns over 10,300 related studies.

In a recent interview, Dr. Harman said this: "Free-radical reactions are implicated in 50 disorders. These 'free radical diseases' include cancer, heart attacks, strokes, rheumatoid arthritis, cataracts, and Alzheimer's disease -- the major cause of admission to nursing homes. The list keeps growing."
Which Free Radicals are Most Important?
In their landmark 1983 book Life Extension: A Practical Scientific Approach, authors Durk Pearson and Sandy Shaw identify the hydroxyl radical is "the most dangerous type of free radical."

"Hydroxyl radicals, the most potent oxidant known, can attack any organic substance found in cells," say Pearson and Shaw. "They account for a large part of the damage done by radiation..."

Shaw and Pearson also identify two key enzymes, SOD (superoxide dismutase) and glutathione peroxidase, as critical antioxidant defense systems in the body. "Without these enzymes," they state, "you would quickly die."

In an article published in the British Medical Bulletin, authors Cheeseman and Slater state that "the most important reactants in free radical biochemistry in aerobic cells are oxygen and its radical derivatives (superoxide and hydroxyl radical)."

So What Does That Have to Do with Baby Apple Skins?

Apple polyphenol extracts have been shown to deactivate or "quench" the most damaging types of radicals known, including hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and oxygen singlet radicals.

They have also been proven to significantly and dramatically enhance the body's two key enzymes- SOD and glutathione peroxidase- that scavenge damaging free radicals

A study from New York University School of Medicine reported that apple extract strongly scavenged hydroxyl (OH) and superoxide (O2) radicals."
Korean researchers reported a 41% increase in SOD activity after only 6 days on apple polyphenol-rich diets in human volunteers.
A 1999 study from Sweden declared that "glutathione peroxidase activity increased significantly" with liquid apple polyphenol extract.
Apple polyphenol extracts are the only compounds in the medical literature have shown this full range of effects against the most damaging types of oxidative stress.

Specific Medical Studies
Relevant scientific studies on apple polyphenols are organized here by specific medical condition. These links are also available from every page by the links to your left.

As soon as new studies are published, you will find them here at To make it even easier for you to receive the latest information, we have created the AP Science news bulletin. Sign up for free this service and be the first to know about new studies, news articles, and available products related to apple polyphenols.

Click below for specific medical studies
Aging and age-related disease
Alzheimer's Disease
Asthma and Pulmonary Function
Colon Cancer
Hair Growth and Male Pattern Baldness
Heart Disease (CVD)
Lung Cancer
Prostate Cancer
Safety and Toxicity
Skin Cancer
Weight Loss
Can I just eat apples? That's not what they're using in the studies. Click here
What concentrated products are available? Check the Suppliers page here


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